Corruption in Pakistan

By Iqra Younas

Corruption in Pakistan

Corruption could be defined as “the misuse of public/entrusted power (by elected politician or appointed civil servant or others). Corruption is that evil which has destroyed nations as it eats their resources. History is witness that this evil has caused Poison in the socio-economic development of any country. Pakistan has also been the victim of extreme corruption since its inception. Soon after Pakistan came into being, people in power and public offices started using their positions for personal gains.

History:

After the Pakistan came into being politicians who are ruling the country their responsibilty were to make the nation free from corruption but for their personal gain the rulers also get involved theirselves in illegal activities.From Bhutho to till Nawaz Shariff our country is not free from corruption we are facing the same problems nothing is changed at all.

Corruption has been a part of society since the ancient times.So many scandals also got the fame amd they were badly damaged after doing the fraud or corruption.The famous scandals were Enron and World bank scandal.People working inside the bank like employees and the other workers they did the fraud even the CEO of the bank he get involved with the auditor of the bank and done blunders and as a result bankruptcy took place.

last five years Data shows that corruption in Pakistan ranked 139 out of 174 in corruption among all the countries in 2012,which improved to 127 in 2013. In 2014 this number improved by 1 point only. By 2016 this number has come down to 116,which is a good sign. There are a lot of corruption scandals in the last five years among which some of them were; Rental Power Projects scam, Hajj Corruption Case, OGRA scam, Pakistan Steel Mills scam, NICL corruption case, Ephedrine quota case, PMDC fake registrations etc. Global Competitiveness Report shows that corruption is the third greatest problem for companies which are doing business in Pakistan.

It has been researched that acceptability of corruption in the society has increased over the period and people have become less conscious of and feel less guilty toward their role in eradicating corruption. Some research has shed light that about Rs. 200 billion per annum is the loss that national exchequer has to bear due to corruption. Development, bank loans write-offs are the main areas where corruption is committed.

According to perception surveys conducted by Transparency International, following departments are scored highest in corruption.

1. Power Sector

2. Tax and Customs

3. Police and Law Enforcement

4. Judiciary and Legal Profession

5. Health and Education

6. Land Administration

Levels of Corruption:

  • High level Corruption
  • Low level Corruption

    High level Corruption:

      Such type of corruption occur on grand level like it took place on government sectors like political corruption etc.

   Low level Corruption:

      Such corruption does not occur on large scale like corruption in police station,some officers hide the list of crimes which criminals done and sometimes they are involved in them.NGOs and other firms are also sometimes found in illegal activities to ground their feet in the society and showed others that they are working good for others.

  Forms of Corruption :

     Corruption that takes place in different forms.It may occur on private level,publicly or may be in NGOs but who are responsible for such type of corruption occuring in firm or a bussiness or in a society.Obviously the person who are working inside it they involved theirselves in illegal activities to fulfill their needs.

     Corruption in Public Utilities:

      People often used unfair means of elctricity to getrid theirselves ftom paying high bills.From the survey it is reported nearby  96% people are involved in such type of activities.

            Police Corruption :

      Police Corruption is actually the root of the crime,most of the times police involved their selves in illegal activities and they hide the records of the crime which actually increase the rate of crime.

       Judicial Corruption:

    “Justice delayed is justice denied"

      Judicial Corruption is becoming very common and it is increasing day by day.Judges wrong decisions sometimes become the cause of death.Sometimes judges were pressurised to do such act.Some judges show dishonesty and they sell their occupation.

Causes :

There are a lot of causes of this problem in Pakistan. Although it is not easy to determine exactly how much of each is casuse is responsible towards overall corruption in the country but according surveys conducted by Transperancy International, following causes have been identified as the major ones,

  • Lack of Accountability 31.68%
  • Low Salaries 16.54%
  • Power of Monopoly16.43%
  • Power of discretionary 12.61%
  • Deficiency of Transparency 9.97%
  • Power of influential people 4.59%
  • Red Tapism 4.28%
  • Others 4.9%

The above data shows both mega and petty corruption.

In Pakistan, NAB (National Accountability Bureau) is the department that deals with corruption scandals at government and public sector levels. But the main problem with this department has been about its independency. NAB has been used both by civil and military governments for their personal gains. One such example was seen in the last years when NRO (National Reconciliation Order) was introduced to save mega corruption scandals which proved to be a major setback for corruption curbing efforts.

 Reasons :

It is directly or indirectly involved in corruption on daily basis.

Following are the reasons why people used unfair means

1-    To reached to their destination without doing any effort.

2-   To be more successfull.

      3-   To run the world

      4-   Gender discrimination.

5-   Personal rights 

6-   Wealth issues  

7-  References and favouritism.

8-   Educational crisis

9-  Poverty

Control:

Corruption is eating into the vitals of Pakistan and serious efforts and solutions should be put in place to deal with this problem. Some important steps and measure in eradicating this problem are as follows;

  • Judiciary has to take important steps and actions like Suo Moto action against laws such as NRO which were made to save corrupt politicians.
  • Accountability
  • Education. Efforts should be made towards educating people as this will make them take wise decision towards electing their leaders and to raise their voices against corrupt elements of the society.
  • Independent audit firms from private sector should be hired for the audit of governmental departments.
  • Computerised systems should be introduced in all departments with proper and stringent checks and controls. This is especially needed in property and land ownership sector.
  • ECP should disqualify any member of assembly who tries to hide his assets.
  • Economic reforms
  • End discretionary laws.
  • Severe punishments & fines for corrupt elements as is the case in China. Permanent disqualification from elections of corruption politicians could be a good step.

    Conclusion :

    The main hurdles in our way to make the corruption free nation that people are not trying to change their living style.They try short cut to be successful .Their illiterate acts are the main drawback because no one can bring the change in the society if one does not willing to bring the change in itself.The Government must run anti-corruption compaign and must fined all those who are creating such blunders and are responsible for the crimes.There must be laws and regulations which everyone has to follow who are working in an orgainzation,firm or offices.

  • They must be highly charged for the violance of laws.Police officers who are involved in illegal activities and giving height to crime by hiding the records or misplacement and not taking actions against such act,such officers must be suspended as a punishment.

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