Efficacy of Herbicides in Rice & Maize Crop

By Asad Ullah

Efficacy of Herbicides in Rice & Maize Crop

Introduction:

This report is a short explanation of my three month internship carried out as essential part of the B.Sc (Hons.) Plant pathology. The internship was carried out within the Auriga Group (Lahore) in 2014. As my I am interested in pests management of different crops, especially of weeds management, the job was concentrated on the weeds of rice and maize crop present in Pakistan.

At the beginning of the internship I formulated several learning goals, which I wanted to achieve:

  • To realize the functioning and working conditions of a non-governmental organization
  • To see what is like to work in professional environment
  • To use my gained skill and knowledge
  • To see what skills and knowledge I still need to work in a professional environment
  • To learn about the organizing of a research project (planning, preparation, permissions etc.)
  • To learn about research methodologies (field methods/method to analyze data)
  • To get fieldwork experience/built a network

This internship report contains many activities that have contributed to achieve a number of my stated goals. In the following chapter a description of the organization, Auriga Group and the activities is given. After this a reflection on my functioning, the unexpected circumstances and the learning goals achieved during the internship are described. Finally I give a conclusion on the internship experience according to my learning goals.

Internship Description

Auriga Group:

Auriga Group is a non-governmental organization founded in 2000. It works on the production of Agro-based products which contribute to local and sustainable agricultural development. Striving for excellence along with its three subsidiaries Auriga Chemicals Enterprises, Sayban International & Auriga Seeds Corporation, the group is dealing with a big network of clients throughout Pakistan.

Providing farmers with the latest traits and technologies to help them become more profitable on every acre is something Auriga prides itself on. A reliable name in agrochemicals and seeds, Auriga is playing its part by developing improved seeds, conserving resources through the development of seeds and improving the lives of farmers.

Auriga Group of companies is committed to make Pakistan self-sufficient in agriculture because it is the largest productive sector and a bulk of our population depends upon it. With population increasing to alarming levels, Pakistan’s agriculture needs to become more productive and sustainable. Only agricultural innovations can help us cope with the situation.

The Group facilitates the collaboration between local communities, investigators, national authorities and private institutions. This Group works on the vision of “A vibrant rural economy driven by value-added agriculture”.

Internship activities:

When my internship was started, several projects having different goals were under consideration:

  • Insect’s pest management in different fruit, vegetable and cereal crops.
  • Weeds management in different fruit, vegetable and cereal crops.
  • Hybrid seed production in different vegetable and cereal crops.

But I planned to participate in weed management projects. My internship was completely focused on weeds management. I mainly participated in two projects;

  • Efficacy of different herbicides in Maize crop.
  • Efficacy of different herbicides in Rice crop.

Introduction to rice:

Rice is the fundamental food for more than two billion people of Asia. The people of Pakistan depend on rice as second staple food and have great influence on agrarian market of Pakistan.  But infestation of weeds is one of the most important reasons for low yield of rice. Weed infestation reduces the grain yield by three ways:

  • Early summer weed infestation (production reduction is up to 70-80%)
  • Late summer weed infestation (production reduction is up to 30-40%)
  • Winter weed infestation, Bengal (production reduction is up to 22-36%)

Introduction to maize:

Maize is the highest yielding cereal crop in the World and has noteworthy importance for Pakistan. In Pakistan Maize is the third main cereal after wheat and rice. Maize accounts for 4.8% of the total cropped area and 3.5% of the value of agricultural output. But infestation of weeds is one of the most important reasons for low yield of maize. Weed infestation reduces the grain yield up to 30%.

Introduction to weed:

Weed; “An Undesirable plant in a field will be called as weed”.

For intelligent and efficient weed control, some knowledge of the life cycles of weeds is useful. The life cycle of a weed is simply its seasonal pattern of growth and reproduction. For example, an annual life cycle means that a weed goes from seed to seed in one growing season or one year. A perennial life cycle means that a weed regrows season after season. The table below summarizes definitions of a number of life cycles and gives examples of weeds in each category.

 

Table # 1

Weed’s Classification based on life cycle

Type

Definition

Examples

 

Annual

Weed species that completes its life cycle (seed to seed) within one growing season or one calendar year

Setaria pumila

Parthenium spp.

Cyperus difformis

Citrulus vulgaris

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

S.  zeylanica

Easier to manage because they only produce by seeds.

Post emergence treatment is fruitful.

 

Summer Annual

Summer annual weeds are a subcategory of annual weeds. They germinate as temperatures rise in the spring (April to May) through summer, whenever soil moisture is adequate.

Echinochloa

Crusgalli

Summer annuals  germinate in the late spring and early  summer, flower and set seed in late  summer or early fall, and die when it  gets cool.

Winter Annual

Winter annuals germinate in the fall or early spring, flower set seed in late spring, and die when it gets hot

 

 

Perennial

Weed that continues to regrow over a few seasons to many seasons.

Cyperus rotundus

Cynodon dactylon

Paspalum disticum

Marsilea minuta

Difficult to manage.

Pre emergence treatment is fruitful.

 

Creeping Perennial

Perennial weeds with vegetative structures (stolons or rhizomes) that permit them to reproduce asexually

Paspalum paspaloides

 

Table # 2

Weed’s Classification based on leaves

Weeds  classified as

Definitions

  Examples

  1. Grasses:
  • Stem is hollow except at nodes
  • Ligulate
  • Alternate or opposite leaves

These are in a single botanical plant family (Poaceae) and have jointed stems and leaves with parallel veins that are divided into a blade and a sheath that wraps around the stem. The seedhead forms from a flower cluster called a spike which can be further branched into a panicle consisting of many spikelets.  Grasses can be annuals or perennials  depending on species

Digitaria

Cynadon

 

 

 

 

Sedges

&

Narrow leaves

Narrow leave

Narrow leaf weeds are mostly monocot with single cotyledon characterized by parallel veins and reproduce through seeds only.

Paspalum disticum

Paspalum paspaloides

Cynodon dactylon

Echinochloa crusgalli

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

Setaria pumila

Sedges:

  • Stem Angular & solid
  • Does not possess ligules
  • Leaves in whorls around the stem

       eg. ;

Cyprus, Scirpus

Sedges are grass-like and are characterized by their solid, jointless, and triangular stems. The stem has three rows of narrow grass-like leaves. The flower head is composed of spikelets of non-showy flowers.

Cyperus rotundus

Cyperus difformis

 

 

  1. Broad leaves

 Broadleaf weeds are dicots with paired cotyledons (two seed leaves that usually appear during germination) and are characterized by their broad leaves with a network of veins.

Marsilea minuta

Sphenoclea zeylanica

Citrulus vulgaris

Parthenium spp.

Table # 3

Common weeds

Common Name

Scientific Name

Vernacular Name

Atriplex

Chenopodium orach

Bathu

Buckwheat, wild

Polygonum convolvulus

Knotweed, Like Dranak

Buffalobur

Solanum rostratium

Spiny nightshade, Like mako

Burcucumber

Sicyos angulatus

Bar cucumber

Carpetweed

Mollugo verticillata

Carpetweed

Carrot, wild

Daucus carota

Wild carrot

Chickweed

Stellaria media

Phullan booti

Cocklebur, common

Xanthium strumarium

Mohabbat booti

Crabgrass, large

Digitaria sanguinalis

Kala bara

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

Talkhiting

Dock, curly

Rumex crispus

tukhm hummaz, tukhm hummaz baryan

Galinsoga

Galinsoga parviflora

Hindi.  Marchya

Hemp

Cannabis sativa

Bhang

Horseweed

Conyza Canadensis

Like loosan booti

Jimson weed

Datura stramonium

Like Sufaid dhatoora

Knotweed, prostrate

Polygonum aviculare

Like Dranak

Lambsquarters,

Chenopodium album

Bathu

Mallow, Venice

Hibiscus trionum

Flower of an hour/bagh sotsal

Morningglory, ivyleaf

Ipomoea hederacea

Ipomoea lacunose

Ipomoea hederacea

Bhindi tori

Nightshade, black

Solanum nigrum

Solanum ptycanthum

Solanum sarrachoides

Mako,peelak

Nutsedge, yellow

Cyperus esculentus

Like ghoin

Pigweed, redroot

Waterhemp

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthus hybridus

Amaranthus albus

Amaranthus tuberculatus

Cholai

Pokeweed, common

Phytolacca Americana

inkberry, pigeonberry, poke weed, pokeroot

Sesbania, hemp

Sesbania exaltata

 

Sida, tea weed

Sida spinosa

nagbala, tukhm kharenti

Signal grass,

Bracharia platphylla

Like madhani

Smartweed, ladysthumb

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonum lapathifolium

 

Like Dranak

Thistle, Canada

Circium arvense

Leh,bhur bhur

Velvetleaf

Abutilon theophrasti

Jute

 

Table # 4

Main Weeds of Rice Crop

Location

Lahore, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala at noshehra and Sialkot.

Species

Eng. name

Lcl.name

Short Description

Parthenium sp.

Bitter weed,

Carrot grass, Congress grass

Chatak chandni,

Reproduction & spread: Seed

Type: Annual & Herbaceous

Habitat: semi-arid, subtropical, tropical and temperate.

Panicum sp.

Setaria viridis/Setaria pumila

Panic grass

Loomar ghaas

Reproduction & spread: Seed

Type: Annual & fibrous rooted grass

Habitat: marshes, ditches,flooding tolerant and cultivated fields

Paspalum paspaloides & Paspalum disticum

Knotgrass, Ginger/Thompson grass.

Narru ghaas

Reproduction & spread: vegetative, creeping stems dispersed by water.

Type: creeping stoloniferous perennial herb

Habitat: moist areas and summer rains, persists during dry season

Echinochloa colona

barnyard grass

water grass

Swanki

Reproduction & spread: seed

Type: clumped annual grass

Habitat: Prefers moist but unflooded conditions

Cyperus rotundus

Nut Grass

Mork, Deela

Reproduction & spread: underground tubers

Type: perennial

Habitat: tropical and temperate

Cyperus difformis

umbrella-sedge

Ghoin

Reproduction & spread: seed

Type: annual

Habitat: flooded or moist fertile soils

Scirpus maritimus

Scripus compactus

Club-rush,

earth almond

Deela,

Reproduction & Spread: seeds, Aug. to Sept.

Type: perennial

Habitat:  Along the seashore

Cynodon dactylon

Dhoob, Bermuda grass

Khabal

Reproduction & spread: seed & rhizomes/stolen

Type: creeping, stoloniferous perennial, mostly with rhizomes

Habitat: rainy & drought tolerant, warm climate

Citrulus vulgaris/ Citrullus lanatus

Wild mellon

J. tarbooz

Reproduction & spread: seed mainly by water

Type: prostrate or climbing annual, herbaceous

Habitat: semi arid region, Dry or rainy season

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

Crowfoot Grass

Madhana ghas

Reproduction & spread: by seed/rooting at nodes

Type: low growing, annual/short-lived perennial

Habitat: semi arid, Grows in rainforest, grassland

Marsilea minuta

water clover

Chaopatti

Reproduction & spread: Spores or rhizomes

Type: perennial fern with  branched rhizome

Habitat: coast of channels, sandy/loamy soil.

Sphenoclea zeylanica

Chickenspike, gooseweed,

Mirch booti

Reproduction & spread: seed

Type: Herbaceous annual weed

Habitat: damp conditions including paddy fields

 

Table # 5

Main weeds of Maize crop

Melilotus indica

Indian clover

Sengi

Reproduction & Spread: seeds

Type: Annual

Habitat: wide native distribution- Mostly in all Zones

Portulaca oleracea

Parsley

Kulfa, loonak

Reproduction & spread: seeds

Type: Annual/perennial

Habitat: Fields, waste ground, roadside verges & cultivated ground.

Medicago polymorpha

Black medick

Maina

Reproduction & spread:

Type: annual/perennial- April to Oct.

Habitat: Waste places, lawns, roadsides, railroads.

Chenopodium album

Goosefoot

Batho

Reproduction & spread: seeds

Type: Annual

Habitat:  mostly temperate

Euphorbia granulate

Garden spurge

Hzardani dodhak

Reproduction & spread: seeds

Type: annual/perennial

Habitat: tropical/temperate

Amaranthus viridis

Amaranth

Chulai

Reproduction & spread: seed

Type: annual

Habitat: prostrate, flattened; waysides

Rumex denatus

Bitter dock

J.palak

Reproduction & spread: seeds

Type: annual

Habitat: deep situations, moist places

Parthenium hysterophorus

Ragweed, congress grass

Gajar booti

Reproduction & spread: seeds

Type: annual

Habitat: All zones

Convolvulus arvensis

Field bindweed

Lehli

Reproduction & Spread: vegetatively from roots, rhizomes, stem fragments and by seeds

Type: Perennial

Habitat: fields, waste places, fences

Cyperus rotundus

Nut Grass

Mork, Deela

Reproduction & spread: underground tubers

Type: perennial

Habitat: tropical and temperate

Dactyloctenium aegyptium

Crowfoot Grass

Madhana ghas

Reproduction & spread: spread by seed or by rooting at nodes

Type: low growing, mat forming, annual/short-lived perennial grass.

Habitat: semi arid, Grows in rainforest, woodland and grassland

Weed Management:

There are two effective methods to manage weeds in rice and maize crop.

  • Integrated weed management
  • Herbicide Application

Integrated Weed Management:

In this method we use all strategies from land preparation to till crop rotation. All strategies are given in this picture. 

Herbicide Application:

Herbicides are the first line of defense and ideal method of weed control.

Herbicide application is dependent on weed density and observation on field monitoring.

Herbicide:

A substance that is toxic to plants, used to destroy unwanted vegetation. There are following classes of chemicals that are used as herbicides in Rice and Maize crop.

Table # 6

Herbicides

Name of class

Example

Triazines

Atrazine

Sulfonylureas

Helosulfuron,Nicosulfuron, Bensulfuron, Pyrazosulfuron, Thifensulfuron, Rimsulfuron

Triketone

Mesotrione

Chloroacetamide

Butachlor, Pretilachlor

Oxyacetamide

Mefenacet

diphenyl ether

Oxyflourfen

quinolinecarboxylic acid

Quinclorac

Aryloxyphenoxypropionate

Cyhalofop

Fenoxaprop

 

Table #7

Herbicide Classification

 

Application based

Pre-emergent herbicides

Prevent germination and growth

S-metolachlor

Post emergent herbicides

 

Apply on existing vegetation.

Butachlor

 

Activity based

Systemic Herbicides

Translocate though out the body.

Glyphosate

Contact Herbicides

Present only on application site

Paraquat

 

Selection based

Selective herbicides

Having specific target

Atrazine

 

Non-selective herbicides

Control all vegetation

Glyphosate

 

 

Material & Method:

Trails were conducted in Auriga research form no. 2 situated in Lahore.

For Maize

  1. Plot design- rectangle

50 ft                                                                29.4ft

 

  • Plot size: 1470sq.ft
  1. Crop/variety: Maize Kingcross
  • Date of planting: 4-Mar-14
  • Plant distance: 6”
  • Row distance: 1ft
  • Seed rate: 10-12 kg/acre
  1. Name of weeds: Madhana ghaas, Mork, Lehli, Sengi, Kulfa, Mena, batho, Hazardani dodhak, Chulai, J.palak, Gajar booti
  • Growth stage: 4-6 leaf stage
  1. Pest scouting method: square-meter method
  • Formula: No. of weeds in all observations/ total no. of observations
  1. Herbicides:   mix. Helosulfuron+Mesotrione

            mix. Nicosulfuron+Rimsulfuron

            mix. Thifensulfuron+Rimsulfuron

  • Date of application: 8-Apr-14
  • No. of blocks: 28
  • No. of application: single
  • Dose: given in table

Efficacy of different herbicides in Spring Maize

Trial No:

Auriga Farm-2

Type of Weeds

Location:

Lahore

Narrow leaves

Sedges

Broad leaves

Planting date

04-03-2014

Madhana ghaas

Mork

Lehli, Sengi, Kulfa, Mena, batho, Hazardani dodhak, Chulai, J.palak, Gajar booti

App. Date

8-04-2014

1st Observation:

12-04-2014

No. of Application

1/treatment

 

 

Weather Report

 

Feels Like: 28 °C

Dew point: 11 °C

Humidity: 39%

Wind Speed: 15 kph

http://weather.onepakistan.com.pk/lahore-weather/

Pot size:

1493sq. ft

Sowing meth.

Bed sowing

Water to be used:

Tube well

Application method:

spray/T get nozzle

Application time:

11:15 am

Pest:

Weeds

Use:

Post emergence

Design:

Square

Treatments

Dose/acre

Post emergence

Area

Water

Dose: gram

T1

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

9.5 gm + 38 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.03 + 0.15

T2

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

11 gm + 38 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.04 + 0.15

T3

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

9.5 gm + 44 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.03 + 0.17

T4

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

11 gm + 44 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.04 + 0.17

T5

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

15.75 gm + 10 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.06 + 0.03

T6

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

17.7 gm + 11 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.070 + 0.04

T7

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

19.4 gm + 12 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.076 + 0.047

T8

HS 75 WDG + MT 80 WDG

22 gm + 13 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.087 + 0.051

T9

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

19.2 gm + 60 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.076 + 0.237

T10

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

21 gm + 65 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.083 + 0.257

T11

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

22.5 gm + 70 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.089 + 0.277

T12

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

24 gm + 75 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.095 + 0.297

T13

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

24 gm + 38 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.095 + 0.15

T14

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

26 gm + 44 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.102 + 0.17

T15

HS 25 WDG + MT 80 WDG

28 gm + 50 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.110 + 0.198

T16

HS 25 WDG + MT 80  WDG

30 gm + 56 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.118 + 0.221

T17

NS 4% SC + RS 25 WDG

250 ml + 16 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.990 + 0.063

T18

NS 4% SC + RS 25 WDG

275 ml + 18 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

1.089 + 0.071

T19

NS 4% SC + RS 25 WDG

275 ml + 19.25 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

1.089 + 0.076

T20

NS 4% SC + RS 25 WDG

325 ml + 20.8 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

1.287 + 0.082

T21

RS 25 WDG + TS 15 WDG

15 gm + 12 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.059 + 0.047

T22

RS 25 WDG + TS 15 WDG

18 gm + 15 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

1.089 + 0.059

T23

RS 25 WDG + TS 15 WDG

21 gm + 17 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.083 + 0.067

T24

RS 25 WDG + TS 15 WDG

24 gm + 20 gm

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

0.095 + 0.079

T25

RS + A 25% OD

500ml

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

1.98 ml

T26

RS + A 25% OD

600ml

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

2.4 ml

T27

RS + A 25% OD

700ml

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

2.8 ml

T28

RS + A 25% OD

800ml

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

3.2 ml

T29

Control

 

4-6 leaf stage

16sq.m

.5 L

 

For Rice

  1. Plot design- square

· Plot size: 1125sq.ft

34 ft               

33.6ft

 

  1. Crop/variety:  Course Rice
  • Date of planting: 3-Apr-14
  • Seed rate: 8-10 kg/acre
  • Growth stage: 3-4 leaf stage
  1. Name of weeds: Qulfa, cholai, lehli, itsit, hazardani, madhana ghas, khabal, deela
  2. Pest scouting method: square-meter mathod
  3. Herbicides treatment: mix. Bensulfuron +quinclorac

            mix. Bensulfuron+betachlor

mix. Bensulfuron+mefenacet

 mix. Pyrazosulfuron+quinclorac

            mix. Oxyflourfen+pretilachlor

mix. Bensulfuron+pretilachlor

            mix. Cyhalofop+Fenoxaprop

  • Date of application: 9-Apr-14
  • Date of observation: 10-may-14
  • No. of blocks: 6
  • No. of application: single
  • Dose: given in table

Efficacy of different herbicides in Rice crop

Trial No:

Auriga: 1

Pest Scouting In Rice Field

Location

Auriga farm- 2

 

 

 

 

 

Pest

(Weeds)

Types of weed

Name

R1

R2

R3

Ave.

Crop

Rice

 

 

Broad leave

Qulfa

17

34

10

20.3

Date of planting

3-April-2014

Cholai

1

0

0

0.3

Date of application

09-April-2014

Lehli

1

0

0

0.3

1st Observation

10-May-2014

Itsit

2

0

0

0.7

No. of application

Single

Hazardani

25

14

24

18

Plot size

14+24.5=343 sq.m

Daryai boti

0

0

1

0.3

Pest

Weeds

 

Narrow leave

 

Madhana ghas

9

2

4

5

Application time

3-4 life stage

Khabal

1

4

24

10

Sowing method

Chutta

Sedges

Deela

14

7

11

11

Water to be used

Tube well

 

Total weeds/m2

70

61

74

68

Application method

Spray

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Use

On ETL’s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatments

Dose/acre

ETL’s

Area

Water

Dose ml/g

BS +Q 40% WP

225gm

2-leaf

42m2

1.24 ltr

2.4 gm

B + B 30% wp

700gm

2-leaf

42m2

1.24 ltr

7.3gm

B + M 80 WP

40gm

2-leaf

42m2

1.24 ltr

0.42 gm

P 63%+ Q 5%= 68% WP

150gm

2-leaf

42m2

1.24 ltr

1.6 gm

O + P

600gm

2-leaf

42m2

1.24 ltr

6.2 ml

B (4) + P (36)= 40 WP

180gm

2-leaf

42m2

1.24 ltr

1.87 gm

Result and discussion

For Maize

Weed infestation:

Twelve weed species infested the experimental plots. The weeds that rise in Kingcross Maize field are broadleaves, narrow leaves and sedges. If weeds do not control timely would reduce crop yield very drastically. Among twelve species, ten were broadleaved, one is narrow leaved and one is sedges. These twelve weeds were examined after 35 DAT of plantation.

Weed control:

The major result on total weed population except narrow leaved weeds was found due to different herbicidal mixtures (Helosulfuron 75% WDG + Mesotrione 80% WDG, Nicosulfuron 4% SC + Rimsulfuron 25% WDG, Rimsulfuron 25% WDG + Thifensulfuron 15% WDG, Rimsulfuron + Atrazine 25% OD) at 35 DAT crop. Among these helosulfuron+mesotrion mixture has high efficacy rate against all broadleaved weeds and sedges. These mixtures have no impact on narrow leaved weeds.

Mixtures

Phytotoxicity rating

Result (Impact on weed)

Broad leaved

Narrow leaved

Sedges

Helosulfuron 75% WDG + Mesotrione 80% WDG

9

Y

N

Y

Rimsulfuron + Atrazine 25% OD

9

Y

N

Y

Nicosulfuron 4% SC + Rimsulfuron 25% WDG

8

y

N

Y

Rimsulfuron 25% WDG + Thifensulfuron 15% WDG

7

Y

N

Y

Control

0

N

N

N

Rating based on 9-1 scale, 9= high quality control; 0= lowest quality with high weed population. Y= control; N= no control

For Rice

Weed infestation:

Nine weed species (Qulfa, Cholai, Lehli, Itsit, Hazardani, Daryai boti, Madhana ghas, Khabal & deela) infested the experimental plots. The weeds that rise in course rice transplanted field are broadleaves, narrow leaves and sedges. If weeds do not control timely would reduce crop yield very significantly. Among nine species, six were broadleaved, two were narrow leaved and one is sedges. These twelve weeds were examined after 6 DAT of plantation.

Weed control:

The major result on total weed population except narrow leaved weeds was found due to different herbicidal mixtures (Helosulfuron 75% WDG + Mesotrione 80% WDG, Nicosulfuron 4% SC + Rimsulfuron 25% WDG, Rimsulfuron 25% WDG + Thifensulfuron 15% WDG, Rimsulfuron + Atrazine 25% OD) at 35 DAT crop. Among these helosulfuron+mesotrion mixture has high efficacy rate against all broadleaved weeds and sedges. These mixtures have no impact on narrow leaved weeds.

Weed population

Before application

After application

Types of weed

Name of weed

R1

R2

R3

Ave.

R1

R2

R3

Ave.

 

 

Broad leave

Qulfa

17

34

10

20.3

 2

4

0

2

Cholai

1

0

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

Lehli

1

0

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

Itsit

2

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

Hazardani

25

14

24

18

3

2

1

2

Daryai boti

0

0

1

0.3

0

0

0

0

 

Narrow leave

 

Madhana ghas

9       

2

4

5

0

0

1

.33

Khabal

1

4

24

10

0

1

8

3

Sedges

Deela

14

7

11

11

2

3

3

2.67

 

Total weeds/m2

70

61

74

68

7

10

13

10

 

Table: 12

Mixtures

Result (Impact on weed)

Broad leaved

Narrow leaved

Sedges

Bensulfuron +quinclorac 40% WP

Y

Y

Y

Bensulfuron+betachlor 30% wp

Y

Y

Y

Bensulfuron + mefenacet 80 WP

Y

Y

Y

Pyrazosulfuron 63%+quinclorac 5%= 68% WP

Y

Y

Y

Oxyflourfen+pretilachlor

Y

Y

Y

Bensulfuron (4) + pretilachlor (36)= 40 WP

Y

Y

Y

Control

N

N

N

Summary:

In my study Plant Pathology, Agriculture I am fascinated in pest management studies especially weed management. It was great time for me to do a three month internship in Auriga Group. The internship was concentrated on the weeds of Rice and Maize. At the beginning of the internship I had set a number of learning goals concerning the upgrading of knowledge and skill on Auriga Group, on different pesticides (insecticide, herbicide and nematicide) and research methodologies.

During my stay several activities have contributed to do a number of goals. I went day by day to the field to do direct-count surveys of herbicides effect on weed management. The objective of these surveys is to approximate the efficacy of different herbicides with their physical and chemical hazards to crop and environment.

In my final activity I took part in a farmer education program through managing pesticide labels and advertisement to inform farmers how they use different chemicals and in what concentration with well precautions.

In finale, the internship was a helpful incident. I have discovered out what my strengths and weaknesses are; I gained new knowledge and skills and met new people. I achieved many of my learning goals, however for some the circumstances did not allow to achieve them as I sought.

I got insight into the work of Auriga Group. I also learned about The Pesticide Act, Plant Protection Department Pakistan, The Pesticides Registration Act and the problems which a pesticide company faces during registration of new chemical. Working together with different agencies and by education these intimidations have to be approached. To be successful in discussion of the pesticides, the sharing of knowledge, thoughts and opinions is of importance. There is still a lot to findings and research methods can be improved.

At last this internship has set me new insights and inspiration to pursue a career in pest management especially weeds management of rice and maize.

Conclusion:

On the whole, this job was a useful experience. I have learned new knowledge, skills and met many new people. I achieved several of my learning goals. I got insight into professional practice and learned different facts of working with private companies.

Related to my study I learned more about the herbicides efficacy and the threat they cause.  In developing countries like Pakistan we increase the crop production up to 30 times by applying herbicides for weed management. There is still a lot of technology gap, to discover and to improve. The methods for production, handling and applying herbicides used at the moment are still not identical.

In agriculture sector agro-education is an important aspect for better crop development & production. Famer community is facing a lot of problems because they are unaware about new agro-based product for their crop betterment.

The internship was also good to get out what my strengths and weaknesses are. This helped me to identify what skills and knowledge I have to recover in the coming time. After my bachelor’s degree I think that I could start my working career.

At last this internship has given me new insights and motivation to pursue a career in private agricultural research board.

 

Acknowledgement:

First I would like to thank Mr. Muhammad Azam Cheema, the director of Auriga Group, for giving me the chance to do an internship within the Auriga Group under the direction of Syed Adeel Akhter Shah, the R & D manager & Mr. Abdul Sattar, R & D officer. For me it was a sole experience to be in an institute and to study about Agriculture practically. It also helped to catch back my attention in pesticide research and to have new plans for my future career.

I also would like to thank all the community that worked in the office of Auriga Group in Lahore with their endurance and sincerity they created a pleasant working environment.

Furthermore I want to be grateful all the scientist and field operators, with whom I did the fieldwork. We practiced great things together.

At last I would like to thank the Plant Pathology Department University of Agriculture Faislabad, especially Dr. Shahbaz Talib Sahi, the director of plant Pathology Department and Dr. Imran Ul Haq (Asst. Professor) to permit me to do this interesting internship.

 

Refferences:

http://www.pfaf.org/

http://www.missouriplants.com/

http://www.hear.org/

http://www.envis.frlht.org/

http://www.fintrac.com/

http://www.pakissan.com/

Book: Identification of weeds by Muhammad Ashiq, plant physiology section AARI.

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